## IP Physics Syllabus (Adapted from Hwa Chong Institution SIO)

SEC  3 IP PHYSICS  SPECIFIC INSTRUCTIONAL OBJECTIVES

INTRODUCTION TO PHYSICS (emphasize during Week 2 – 4 only and concurrently with the 1st topic on Measurements and as necessary throughout the Physics course)

• recognize that physics is the most basic of the living and nonliving sciences

• recognize the contributions of physicists e.g. Albert Einstein, Sir Isaac Newton and realize the importance of their contributions to the present day scientific development

• study the relevance of physics in their lives and possible future career developments

# PHYSICAL QUANTITIES, UNITS AND MEASUREMENT

• understanding that all physical quantities consist of a numerical magnitude and a unit

• recall the following base quantities and their units: mass (kg), length (m), time(s), current (A), temperature (K), amount of substance (mol) (Covered in LSS1)

• show understanding of derived quantities and their derived units

• use the following prefixes and their symbols to indicate decimal sub-multiples and multiples of the SI units: nano (n), micro (m), milli (m), centi (c), deci (d), kilo (k), mega (M), giga (G), tera (T) (Covered in LSS1)

• show an understanding of the orders of magnitude of the sizes of common objects ranging from a typical atom to the Earth

• show an understanding of the distinction between accuracy and precision

• describe how to measure a variety of lengths with appropriate accuracy by means of tapes, rules, micrometers and calipers, using a vernier scale as necessary

(Covered in LSS1)

• describe how to measure a short interval of time including the period of a simple pendulum with appropriate accuracy using stopwatches or appropriate instruments

• represent physical quantities in appropriate accuracies

• show an understanding of the distinction between systematic errors (including zero errors) and random errors

• *suggest appropriate method of estimating physical quantities

• *describe how to reduce the effects of random uncertainties and systematic errors

##### ·understand relative refractive index and absolute refractive index
• recall and apply the relationship, n = real depth / apparent depth to new situations or to solve related problems.

##### LENS
• describe the action of converging lens and diverging lens on a beam of light (Covered in LSS 2)

• define the term focal length of a converging lens (Covered in LSS 2)

• draw ray diagrams to illustrate the formation of real and virtual images of an object by converging lens (Covered in LSS 2)

• *recall and apply the relationship the lens equations. (1/f = 1/u + 1/v) to new situations or to solve related problems

#### SCALARS AND VECTORS

• state what is meant by scalars and vectors quantities and give common examples of each

• add two vectors to determine a resultant by using a graphical method and trigonometric calculations.

• solve problems for a static point mass under the action of 3 forces for 2-dimensional cases by using a graphical method and trigonometric calculations.

SPEED, VELOCITY AND ACCELERATION

• define displacement, speed, velocity and acceleration.

• understand the concept of average speed or velocity.

• solve problems using equations which represent uniformly accelerated motion in a straight line, including the motion of bodies falling in a uniform gravitational field without air resistance.

•  plot and interpret displacement-time graph and velocity-time graph

•   use graphical methods to represent distance travelled, displacement, speed, velocity
and acceleration (uniform or non-uniform) with respect to time.

•  use the slope of a displacement-time graph to find the velocity.

•  use the slope of a velocity-time graph to find the acceleration.

•  interpret given examples of non-uniform acceleration

• deduce from the shape of a distance-time graph when a body is:

(i) at rest

(ii) moving with uniform speed

(iii) moving with non-uniform speed

• deduce from the shape of a speed-time graph when a body is:

(i) at rest

(ii) moving with uniform speed

(iii) moving with uniform acceleration

(iv) moving with non-uniform acceleration

• calculate the area under a velocity-time graph to determine the displacement travelled for motion with uniform speed or uniform acceleration

• state that the acceleration of free fall for a body near to the Earth is constant and is
approximately 10 m s-2

• describe the motion of bodies with constant weight falling with or without air resistance, including reference to terminal velocity

# DYNAMICS

• state each of Newton's 1st and 2nd laws of motion.

• apply Newton’s laws to

1. describe the effect of balanced and unbalanced forces on a body

2. apply Newton’s laws to describe the ways in which a force may change the motion of a body

• state Newton’s 3rd law of motion.

•  identify action-reaction pairs acting on two interacting bodies

• identify forces acting on an object and draw free body diagram(s) representing the forces acting on the object (for cases involving forces acting in at most two dimensions)

• define linear momentum as the product of mass and velocity.

• define force as a rate of change of momentum.

• solve problems for a static point mass under the action of 3 forces for 2-dimensional cases using a graphical method and trigonometric calculations.

• recall and solve problems using the relationship F = ma, appreciating that acceleration and force are always in the same direction.

• apply the relationship between resultant force, mass and acceleration to new situations or to solve related problems

• explain the effects of friction on the motion of a body

MASS, WEIGHT AND DENSITY

• state that mass is a measure of the amount of substance in a body

• show an understanding that the mass of a body resists a change in a state of rest or motion (inertia).

• state that a gravitational field is a region in which a mass experiences a force due to gravitational attraction

• define gravitational field strength g as gravitational force per unit mass

• recall and apply the relationship weight = mass × gravitational field strength to new situations or to solve related problems

• distinguish between mass and weight (Covered in LSS1)

• recall and apply the relationship density = mass / volume to new situations or to solve

related problems (Covered in LSS1)

##### WORK, ENERGY AND POWER
•  show understanding that kinetic energy, potential energy (chemical, elastic, gravitational), thermal energy, light energy, electrical energy and nuclear energy are different forms of energy

•  state the principle of the conservation of energy and apply the principle of the conservation of energy to new situations or to solve related problems

• calculate the efficiency of an energy conversion using the formula efficiency = energy converted to useful / total energy input

•  state that kinetic energy, Ek = ½ mv2 and gravitational potential energy, Ep = mgh (for potential energy changes near the Earth’s surface)

•  apply the relationships for kinetic energy and potential energy to new situations or to solve related problems

• recall and apply the relationship work done = magnitude of a force x the distance moved in the direction of the force to new situations or to solve related problems

• recall and apply the relationship power = work done/time taken to new situations or to solve related problems

##### SIMPLE KINETIC MOLECULAR MODEL OF MATTER
• compare the properties of solids, liquids and gases (Covered in LSS1)

• describe qualitatively the molecular structure of solids, liquids and gases, relating their properties to the forces and distances between molecules and to the motion of the molecules (Covered in LSS1)

• infer from Brownian motion experiment the evidence for the movement of molecules (Covered in LSS1)

• describe the relationship between the motion of molecules and temperature

• explain the pressure of a gas in terms of the motion of the molecules

• recall and explain the following relationships using the kinetic model

1. a change in pressure of a fixed mass of gas at constant volume is caused by a change in temperature of the gas (Pressure Law)

2. a change in volume of a fixed mass of gas at constant pressure is caused by a change in temperature of the gas (Charles’ Law)

3. a change in pressure of a fixed mass of gas at constant temperature is caused by a change in volume of the gas (Boyle’s Law)

•  use the relationships stated above in related situations and to solve problems using appropriate formulas.

•  *recall and apply the relationship PV = nRT to new situations or to solve  related problems

• *show understanding that at absolute zero, particles have minimum energy and that the system neither emits nor absorbs energy

TRANSFER OF THERMAL ENERGY

• show understanding that thermal energy is transferred from a region of higher temperature to a region of lower temperature

• describe, in molecular terms, how energy transfer occurs in solids

• describe, in terms of density change, convection in fluids

• explain that energy transfer of a body by radiation does not require a material medium and the rate of energy transfer is affected by

(i) colour and texture of the surface

(ii) surface temperature

(iii) surface area

• apply the concept of thermal energy transfer to everyday applications

###### TEMPERATURE
• explain how a physical property which varies with temperature, such as volume of liquid column, resistance of wire and electromotive force produced by junctions formed with wires of two different metals, may be used to define temperature scales.

• describe the process of calibration of thermometer, including the need for fixed points such as ice point and steam point

• discuss the structure, sensitivity, range, linearity and responsiveness of thermometers.

• state the relation between Kelvin and Celsius scales of temperatures (T = q + 273)

#### THERMAL PROPERTIES OF MATTER

• describe a rise in temperature of a body to an increase in internal energy     (random thermal energy)

• define the terms heat capacity and specific heat capacity

• recall and apply the relationship thermal energy = mass x specific heat capacity x change in temperature to new situations or to solve related problems

• describe melting/solidification and boiling/condensation in terms of energy transfer without a change in temperature

• explain the difference between boiling and evaporation

• define the terms latent heat and specific latent heat

• explain latent heat in terms of molecular behaviour

• recall and apply the relationship thermal energy = mass x specific latent heat to new situations or to solve related problems

• sketch and interpret a cooling curve

# WAVES

• describe what is meant by wave motion as illustrated by vibration in ropes, springs and experiments using a ripple tank

• state what is meant by the term wavefront

• show understanding that waves transfer energy without transferring matter

• define speed, frequency, wavelength, period  and amplitude

• recall and apply the relationship velocity = frequency x wavelength to new situations or to solve related problems

• compare transverse and longitudinal waves and give suitable examples of each

• *understand qualitatively the phenomenon of interference and its relation to wave-particle duality theory.

• *state some examples of diffraction.

• * describe the diffraction fringe patterns produced by a single edge, a narrow slit and a circular aperture.

• * state the principle of superposition and explain what is meant by constructive and  destructive interference.

Electromagnetic Spectrum (Home-based learning)

• state that all electromagnetic waves are transverse waves that travel with the same high speed in vacuum and state the magnitude of this speed

• describe the main components of the electromagnetic spectrum

• discuss the role of the following components in the stated applications:

1. radiowaves in radio and television communication

2. microwaves in satellite television and microwave oven

3. infra-red waves in infra-red remote controllers and intruder alarms

4. light in optical fibres for medical uses and telecommunications

5. ultra-violet in sunbeds, and sterilisation

6. X-rays in radiological and engineering applications

7. Gamma rays in medical treatment

• describe the effects of absorbing electromagnetic waves, e.g. heating, ionisation and damage to living cells and tissue

#### SOUND (SELF STUDY)

• describe the production of sound by vibrating sources

•  describe the longitudinal nature of sound waves in terms of the processes of compression and rarefaction and deduce that

1. a medium is required in order to transmit these waves

2. the speed of sound differs in air, liquids and solids

• describe a direct method for the determination of the speed of sound in air and make necessary calculation

• relate the loudness of a sound wave to amplitude and pitch to its frequency

• explain why different instruments produce sounds of different quality

• describe how the reflection of sound may produce an echo, and how this may be used for measuring distances

• define ultrasound and describe one use of ultrasound, e.g. cleaning, quality control and pre-natal scanning

• *describe and explain the Doppler Effect and apply the concept in new situations.