SEC  4 IP PHYSICS  SPECIFIC INSTRUCTIONAL OBJECTIVES

 

STATIC ELECTRICITY

  • state that there are positive and negative charges and that charge is measured in coulombs

  • state that unlike charges attract and that like charges repel

  • describe an electric field as a region in which an electric charge experiences a force

  • draw the field of an isolated point charge and show understanding that the direction of the field lines gives the direction of the force acting on a positive test charge

  • draw the electric field pattern between 2 isolated point charges

  • show understanding that electrostatic charging by rubbing involves a transfer of electrons

  • describe experiments to show electrostatic charging by friction and induction

  • distinguish between electrical conductors and insulators and give typical examples of each

  • *explain that charge Q is quantized i.e. Q = ne where e = 1.6 x 10-19 C

  • describe examples where electrostatic charging may be a potential hazard

  • describe the use electrostatic charging in photocopier, spraying of paint, and electrostatic precipitator, and apply the use of electrostatic charging to new situations

 

 

CURRENT ELECTRICITY

  • state that a current is a rate of flow of charge measured in amperes

  • distinguish between conventional current and electron flow

  • recall and apply the relationship charge = current x time i.e. * Q = It = ne to new situations or to solve related problems

  • define electromotive force (e.m.f.) as the work done by a source in driving a unit charge around a complete circuit

  • calculate the total e.m.f. where several sources are arranged in series

  • state that the e.m.f. of a source and the potential difference across a circuit component is measured in volts

  • define the p.d. across a component in a circuit as the work done to drive a unit charge through the component

  • *distinguish between e.m.f. and p.d. in terms of energy considerations

  • *recall and solve problems using the equation V = W/Q

  • define resistance of a component as the ratio of potential difference across it to the current flowing through it

  • apply the relationship R= V/I to new situations or to solve related problems

  • describe an experiment to determine the resistance of a metallic conductor using a voltmeter and an ammeter and make the necessary calculations

  • recall and apply the formulae for the effective resistance of a number of resistors in series and in parallel to new situations or to solve related problems

  • recall  and apply the relationship of the proportionality between resistance and length and the cross-sectional area of a wire to new situations or to solve related problems

  • state Ohm’s law

  • describe the effect of temperature increase on the resistance of a metallic conductor

  • sketch and interpret the V-I characteristic graph for metallic conductor at constant  temperature, a filament lamp and for a semiconductor diode

  • show an understanding of the use of a diode as a rectifier

 

D.C. CIRCUITS

  • draw circuit diagrams with power sources (cell, battery, d.c. supply or a.c. supply), switches, lamps, resistors (fixed and variable), variable potential divider (potentiometer) fuses, ammeters and voltmeters, bells, light-dependent resistors, thermistors and light-emitting diodes

  • state that the current at every point in a series circuit is the same and apply the principle to new situations or to solve related problems

  • state that the sum of the p.d.'s in a series circuit is equal to the p.d. across the whole circuit and apply the principle  to new situations or to solve related problems

  • state that the current from the source is the sum of the currents in the separate branches of the parallel circuit and apply the principle to new situations or to solve related problems

  • state that the potential differences across the separate branches of a parallel circuit is the same and apply the principle to new situations or to solve related problems

  • * show an understanding of conservation of charges and energy

  • recall and apply the relevant relations, including R = V/I and those for potential differences in series and in parallel circuits, resistors in series and in parallel, in calculations involving a whole circuit

  • describe the action of a variable potential divider (potentiometer)

  • describe the action of thermistors and light-dependent-resistors and explain their use as input transducers in potential dividers

  • solve simple circuit problems involving thermistors and light-dependent resistors

  • * show understanding of the structure and operation of CRO

        

 

PRACTICAL ELECTRICITY
  • describe the use of the heating effect of electricity in appliances such as kettles, ovens and heaters

  • recall and apply the relationships P = VI and  E = VIt to new situations or to solve related problems.

  • calculate the cost of using electrical appliances where energy unit is the kW h

  • compare the use non-renewable and renewable energy sources such as fossil fuels, nuclear energy, solar energy, wind energy and hydroelectric generation to generate electricity in terms of energy conversion efficiency, cost per kW h produced and environmental impact

  • state the hazards of

      (i)         damaged insulation

      (ii)        overheating of cables

      (iii)       damp conditions

  • explain the use of  fuses and circuit breakers in electrical circuits and of fuse ratings

  • explain the need for earthing metal cases and for double insulation

  • state the meaning of the terms:  live, neutral and earth

  • describe how to wire a mains plug

  • explain why switches (placed after fuses), fuses and circuit breakers are wired into the live conductor

 

MAGNETISM

  • state properties of magnets

  • describe induced magnetism

  • describe electrical methods of magnetisation and demagnetization

  • describe the plotting of magnetic field lines with a compass

  • draw the magnetic pattern around a bar magnet and between the poles of two bar magnets

  • distinguish between the magnetic properties and uses of temporary magnets (e.g. iron) and permanent magnets (e.g. steel)

 

 

ELECTROMAGNETISM

  • draw the pattern of magnetic field due to currents in straight wires and in solenoids and state the effect on the magnetic field of changing the magnitude and/or direction of the current

  • describe the applications of the magnetic effect of a current in a circuit breaker

  • describe an experiment to show the force on a current-carrying conductor, and on a beam of charged particles in a magnetic field, including the effect of reversing

      (i)            the current

      (ii)           the direction of the field

  • deduce the relative directions of force, field and current when any two of these quantities are at right angles to each other using Fleming’s left-hand rule

  • describe the field patterns between currents in parallel conductors and relate these to the forces which exist between the conductors (excluding the Earth’s field)

  • explain how a current-carrying coil in a magnetic field experiences a turning effect and that the effect is increased by increasing

      (i)    the number of turns in the coil

      (ii)   the current

  • discuss how this turning effect to the action of an electric motor

  • describe the action of a split-ring commutator in a two-pole, single coil motor and the effect of a soft-iron cylinder

  • * show an understanding of similarities and differences between D.C. motor and A.C. motor

 

 

ELECTROMAGNETIC INDUCTION

  • deduce from Faraday’s experiments on electromagnetic induction or other appropriate experiments:

  1. that a changing magnetic field can induce an e.m.f. in a circuit

  2. that the direction of the induced e.m.f. opposes the change producing it

(iii)       the factors affecting the magnitude of the induced e.m.f.

  •  describe a simple form of a.c. generator (rotating coil or rotating magnet) and the use of slip rings (where needed)

  •  sketch a graph of voltage output against time for a simple a.c. generator

  • describe the use of a CRO to display waveforms and to measure p.d.’s and short time intervals of time (detailed circuits, structure and operation of the CRO are not required

  • interpret CRO displays of waveforms, p.d.’s and time intervals to solve related problems

  • * show an understanding of similarities and differences between D.C generator and A.C. generator

  • describe the structure and principle of operation of a basic iron-cored transformer as
     used for voltage transformations

  • recall and apply the equation (Vs/Vp )  =  (Ns/Np )   and Vs Is =  Vp Ip  (for ideal
     transformer) to new situations or to solve related problems

  • describe the energy loss in cables and deduce the advantages of high voltage  
     transmission

 

RESOLUTION OF VECTOR

  • use a vector triangle to represent forces in equilibrium

  • represent a vector as two perpendicular components

  • find the resultant of two coplanar vectors, recognizing situations where vector addition is appropriate.

  • *obtain expressions for components of a vector in perpendicular directions, recognising situations where vector resolution is appropriate.

  • *show an understanding of the independence of perpendicular vector quantities

 

PROJECTILE MOTION

  • describe and explain motion of an object that is projected horizontally with a uniform velocity

  • * describe and explain motion of an object that is projected at an angle to the horizontal direction

 

TURNING EFFECT OF FORCES

  •  define and apply the moment of a force and the torque of a couple and relate this to everyday examples

  •  recall and apply the relationship moment of a force (or torque) = force x perpendicular distance from the pivot to new situations or to solve related problems

  • show an understanding that a couple is a pair of forces which tends to produce rotation only.

  • show an understanding that, when there is no resultant force and no resultant torque, a system is in equilibrium.

  • state the principle of moments for a body in equilibrium

  • apply the principle of moments to new situations or to solve related problems.

  • show understanding that the weight of a body may be taken as acting at a single point known as its centre of gravity

  • describe qualitatively the effect of the position of the centre of gravity on the stability of objects

 

PRESSURE

  • define the term pressure in terms of force and area 

  • recall apply the relationship pressure = force/area to new situations or to solve related problems

  • recall and apply the relationship pressure due to a liquid column = height of column x density of the liquid x gravitational field strength to new situations or to solve related problems

  • describe how the height of a liquid column may be used to measure the atmospheric pressure

  • describe the use of a manometer in the measurement of pressure difference

  • *describe and explain the transmission of pressure in hydraulic systems with particular reference to the hydraulic press and hydraulic brakes on vehicles

 

(* For SMTP classes only)
 

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